importance of military intelligence
Posted on December 10, 2020

Meanwhile, he and his staff developed a concept of operations that would allow for concentration of force, and surprise, against a most vulnerable enemy point. War is a complex interaction of many factors, and in the end, it … And foreknowledge the US Navy had. The assignment fell to a Naval Intelligence officer attached to the ROK Navy, LT Eugene Clark. The term is also used for an agency that gathers such information. The Importance of Intelligence. [3]John Keegan, Intelligence and War: Knowledge of the Enemy From Napoleon to Al-Qaeda (New York: Alfred Knopf, 2003), 25. Dr. Genevieve Lester, the DeSerio Chair of Strategic Intelligence at the U.S. Army War College, is the host for the series and she leads off the series with a discussion of the purpose and present-day challenges facing the intelligence field. Military intelligence can be the most decisive element in wartime operations. Your talent. The Battle of Tannenberg was one of the largest, yet least known, strategically decisive victories in modern warfare. Learn how the CIA is organized into directorates and key offices, responsible for securing our nation. Mail: Inside the U.S., send mail to the following address: Central Intelligence Agency Third Party: Have someone you trust travel to a less restrictive environment and deliver While the Union Army was concentrated, Confederate forces were split, with 21,000 stationed at Manassas Junction under Beauregard, and 12,800 under General Joseph E. Johnston near Harper’s Ferry. [41]John Hughs-Wilson, Military Intelli­gence Blunders (New York: Carrol & Graf Publishers, 1999), 102. Such policy makers as generals and presidents take intelligence into account when making their decisions and acting upon them. To succeed, therefore, foreknowledge of the Japanese plans was vital. Having gained the advantage, US forces traded blows, sinking the Hiryu, while losing Yorktown. The attack caught the Egyptian Air Force with its commander, General Mahmud, out of contact with his forces. provide, including your identity, and our interactions with you will be respectful and 383-4) while others suggest that operations and maintenance of the US intelligence services is nothing more than a highly successful confidence trick (Gill & … Kimmel stood by the window of his office at the submarine base, his jaw set in stony anguish. Beauregard, fearing the worst, sent a plea to Greenhow for intelligence reconfirming the date and planned movement of Union forces. Beauregard’s fate rested in the hands of a few neophyte clandestine agents. [42]Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Joint and National Intelligence Support to Military Operations (JP 2-01), (Washing­ton, DC: Department of Defense, Novem­ber 2003), V-14. In this, Yamamoto was right. During the course of the morning, the Israelis struck 18 of Egypt’s Air Force bases, cratering runways, blowing up aircraft, and destroying support facilities. Answering this question is the purpose behind this exciting six-part podcast series on Intelligence. Intelligence officers receive special training to make them more effective, and can choose to work in the field collecting raw data, or in centralized … All statements of fact, opinion, or analysis expressed in this article are those of the author. Israel faced a similar situation to its north, against Syria and Lebanon, and to its east, against Jordan. On 16 July, she sent word that the Federal forces would move out that very day, marching from Arlington to Manassas, via Centreville, a distance of only 20 miles. Intelligence “failures,” too, tell of the significance intelligence plays. But intelligence testing has also been accused of unfairly stratifying test-takers by race, gender, class and culture; of minimizing the importance of creativity, character and practical know-how; and of propagating the idea that people are born with an unchangeable endowment of intellectual potential that determines their success in life. First, the United States was committed to a defensive war in the Pacific—they had to react to Japanese actions, and, second, since they were committed to defend the Hawaii-Australia line with inferior numbers and weapons, the only real chance for success was to concentrate their forces at the right place at the right time.[14]. Our open-source library houses the thousands of documents, periodicals, maps and reports released to the public. Future of Defence: Big Data And Military Intelligence. One thing is certain - the role of intelligence gathering continues to be of utmost importance not only in wartime but in modern counterterrorism operations. And, how much longer and precarious would the 1967 war have been had Israel’s intelligence not warned of the impending Arab attack, or had it not expended so much effort in knowing every detail of its adversaries force composition? As a result of these failings, even had Egypt’s military been better trained and led, it was at a significant disadvantage from the outset. The President 2. Keegan’s analysis of the battle in Intelligence and War stresses that even with all the intelligence that Nimitz had, and while striking a sizable blow to the Japanese, it had nearly been a major US defeat: [M]idway demonstrates that even possession of the best intelligence does not guarantee victory…. Answering this question is the purpose behind this exciting six-part podcast series on Intelligence. It did not seize the initiative, however, choosing instead to wait until the Second Army could move north to catch the Germans in a pincer. The military and civilian intelligence capabilities collaborate to inform the spectrum of political and military activities. [2] Other works, such as John Keegan’s Intelligence in War, argue that blunt force is the primary variable in achieving victory: “Willpower always counts for more than foreknowledge.”[3]. Success in the physical act of battle requires well-trained soldiers who are properly equipped, led by strong leadership willing to use force against a clear objective, employing it correctly, and sacrificing when necessary. It demonstrated how strategic intelligence can be used in conjunction with operational intelligence to provide senior decisionmakers information necessary to make well-informed national security decisions and to give leaders opportunities to mitigate the numerical superiority of an adversary. The importance of open source intelligence to the military becomes real and tangible if you use a software that reads like a person would, automatically extracting the information that is relevant for your analysis. History has proven that actionable intelligence can lead less capable forces to victory. Recruiting will contact applicants within 45 days if their qualifications meet our needs. “In his absence, the EAF was paralyzed. Yes, intelligence services need to be good stewards of the taxpayer’s … Yet, authorities in Richmond, worried about a Federal incursion down the Shenandoah Valley by a force of 18,000 at Harpers Ferry, had told Beauregard he could unite the two armies only if an attack was imminent. Clark, a veteran of the OSS, recruited local fishermen and partisans for his team. Battle is always risky and can be swayed one way or another by sheer chance. While winning a series of tactical successes, the North was unable to gain its strategic objective— command of all Korea—and was faced with the proposition of using all its remaining forces against the last allied forces holding the Pusan perimeter. These were defeated at the Battle of First and Second Masurian Lakes and effectively destroyed Russia’s capacity for carrying out offensive operations against Germany. Consequently, orders were dispatched that night directing Johnston to move south in haste and unite with Beauregard’s forces on the Bull Run. None of the battles described were won by intelligence alone—victory was achieved by the application of force. Inchon, however, was not ideal. Internet: Send a message here. Misperceiving how quickly the Russians could bring their forces to bear, the Eighth quickly found itself facing two Russian armies—the First moving west into Prussia, and the Second driving northwest from southern Prussia. [19] Theodore F. Cook, Jr., “Our Midway Disaster,” in Cowey, 318–19. [9] The first, sent by General Paul von Rennenkampf, commander of the First Army, revealed the distance between the two armies and that Rennenkampf needed at least three days before his army could join the Second Army in attacking the Germans. Two questions, however, had to be answered: (1) Where should the landing occur? It was nothing short of a complete victory for Germany, and it came in large part because of the German Army’s successful use of intelligence. to us and to those with more detail. Midway, a battle in which intelligence allowed the United States to spring a trap against what the Japanese had planned as their own ambush, resulted in an immediate shift in the balance of sea power in the Pacific. Depending on what you provide, we may offer you compensation. All told, three-quarters of the EAF was destroyed in the first hours of the war. Producing military intelligence analysis is chiefly the responsibility of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), the intelligence elements of the military services and the Unified Commands, and tactical intelligence units organic to … This knowledge emboldened the Germans. [33], From this information, Israeli intelligence developed a precise targeting package. “Intelligence reduces the unknowns that planners must face and forms the basis for both deliberate and crisis action planning,” the Naval Doctrinal Publication points out. If you know of an imminent threat to a location inside the U.S., immediately contact OP-20-G, though, reasoned that the target was Midway. In What If?, Stephen Sears suggests that without a geographic point at which to regroup, the Confederate Army might have dissolved and the rebellion ended in its first year if the Union had won that day.[7]. On its southern border, Israel had roughly 70,000 troops in the Sinai against Egypt’s 100,000; 700 tanks against 950; and it had to distribute its 200 aircraft across all fronts while facing Egypt’s concentrated 430.[29]. It is important to remember that intelligence lessons learned in the Cold War can be and should be used in other areas where the risk for conflict is high. [38]Edwin T. Layton, And I Was There: Pearl Harbor and Midway—Breaking the Secrets (New York: Random House, 1987), 315. [32] Stewart Steven, The Spymasters of Israel: The Definitive Look at the World’s Best Intelligence Service (New York: Bal­lantine Books, 1980), 229. Thus, a McDowell move toward Manassas would spark a race in which Johnston would have to rush to Beauregrad’s aid across piedmont terrain and with limited railroad access. Since Marine Corps intelligence activities are oriented toward the operational and tactical levels, two-thirds of all intelligence Marines serve in the operating forces, with the majority assigned to the staffs and units of tactical commands. One of the most important questions is whether such a … Force and its employment are significant in driving outcomes in combat. [22] In the case of the amphibious assault at Inchon, an attack that led to the collapse of the North Korean army and the taking of some 125,000 prisoners, intelligence gathering and planning allowed US forces to overcome geographic disadvantages and take the enemy by surprise. Thus, by skillfully incorporating intelligence into operational planning, in a little more than two weeks, allied forces were able to oust the invaders from the Republic of Korea.[27]. People from nearly every country share information with CIA, and new individuals contact us Yet the US Navy would never have had the opportunity at Midway to avoid the Japanese trap and to concentrate its forces in a surprise attack against an adversary with numerical superiority had it not been for operational and tactical intelligence of the kind it received. And if the US command had it, it could compensate for the disproportionately large force that Japan could bring to bear. This comprehensive planning bore fruit on 15 September, when the allied amphibious task force launched its initial assault from the sea. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and senior military commanders 5. As the single German corps under General Hermann von Francois began its attack against the exposed left flank of the Second Army on 27 August, two particularly important unencrypted communications transmitted by the Russian First and Second Armies were intercepted. 2015-10-12T20:11:14-04:00 https: ... Admiral William McRaven (Retired) talked about what makes up and the importance of good intelligence. Such intelligence can be a force multiplier. Yet, just as Israeli intelligence in this case can be viewed as an example of how intelligence operations should be conducted, Egypt’s poor intelligence opened the door to its own defeat. The Office of Public Affairs (OPA) is the single point of contact for all inquiries about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). [23] Ibid., “Support to Planning—The Inchon Landing.”. As important as the first, this gave Ludendorff the foreknowledge he needed to achieve surprise and a concentration of force against an exposed adversary. Military intelligence can be the most decisive element in wartime operations. Its OP-20-G Navy Radio Intelligence Section had over the years garnered a number of successes, including breaking many of the Japanese Navy’s codes. And while it was Jackson’s brigade under Johnston’s command that turned the tide of a hard fought battle, it was espionage that provided alternatives to Confederate political and military decisionmakers, allowing them to concentrate their forces and demonstrate that they could defeat the Union in a major engagement. This conclusion misses the point. Thus, if “[O]nly numbers can annihilate,” as suggested by Lord Nelson, the successful exploitation of intelligence in this case demonstrates that they need not be superior numbers.[10]. Its outcome allowed the Germans to recover momentum after their loss at the Battle of the Marne on the Western Front, to save Prussia from the Russians, to defeat three successive Russian armies, and to deal the first of several blows leading to the Treaty of Brest Litovsk and the Russian Revolution in 1917. The most up-to-date CIA news, press releases, information and more. The intelligence community set about answering these questions. Heads of Departments and Agencies of the Executive Branch 4. [12] Due in large part to the foresight provided by US naval intelligence, he failed. The idea was to send a message, via the cable to Midway, to the Commanding Officer of the Naval Base instructing him to “…send a plain language message to Com 14 (Commandant 14th Naval District) stating in effect, that the distillation plant had suffered a serious casualty and that fresh water was urgently needed—to which Com 14 would reply, (also in plain language), that water barges would be sent, under tow, soonest.[17]. [30] And while Israeli forces were better trained, had superior leadership, and had a far more flexible doctrine, Egypt’s army could boast that the majority of its soldiers were combat veterans. However, in each case, the victor could only employ the forces necessary to achieve victory through the advantage of foreknowledge. The Another way is through the support intelligence gives to planning, when it provides information on the adversary’s capabilities and vulnerabilities—in today’s terminology “intelligence preparation of the battlespace.”. Britain’s failed intelligence and misunderstanding regarding Japan’s military capabilities prior to 1942, for example, doomed its army of some 146,000 in Singapore to a crushing defeat at the hands of only 35,000. Rather than concede Prussia to the Russians or potentially face another defeat at the hands of the First Army, Ludendorff looked south for an opening to attack the Russian Second Army. Defeat seemed imminent. The World’s Foremost Mili­tary Historians Imagine What Might Have Been (New York: Berkley Books, 2000), 241–45. collection mission, there are many ways to reach us. We will work to protect all information you German leaders had a thorough understanding of their adversary’s capabilities, schedules, and concept of operations, and this knowledge allowed them to exploit Russian vulnerabilities and defeat them in detail. Clark and a companion measured tides and found that the mud flats initially selected for the attack were not suitable to withstand the weight of fully armed marines. [40] Absolute power does not win absolutely. As he watched the disaster across the harbor unfold with terrible fury, a .50-caliber machine gun bullet crashed through the glass. General MacArthur, the supreme allied commander in Korea, considered a major counterstroke to catch Choe’s forces in a net. However, it is operational and tactical intelligence, not necessarily numbers, technology, or tactics, that can have the most decisive impact on how forces are employed and how success is achieved in wartime operations. [41] History abounds with such examples. [36]Pollack, The Influence of Arab Culture on Arab Military Effectiveness, 201. Military intelligence is as old as warfare itself. [14]Henry F. Schorreck, Battle of Midway: The Role of COMINT at the Battle of Mid­way (SRH-230) (Washington, DC: Depart­ment of the Navy Historical Center, April 1999), 2. Accessed 17 November 2004. Military intelligence deserves to be a top priority in the operational environment (Elder, 2007). © 2017 U.S. Army War College. Please note we have no control over the security and reliability of postal mail. As the bulk of the German Eighth Army advanced on the right flank of the Russian’s Second Army and the Russians’ plight became apparent, German cryptologists began intercepting pleas for assistance, as well as orders from General Zhilinski, overall commander of Russian forces, directing the First Army to move northwest, away from Second Army—a clear sign that the Russian leaders did not have a clear understanding of German dispositions or just how precarious Second Army’s situation was. Deploying three carriers north of Midway to lie in wait, Nimitz had nearly evened the odds. Conceivably lose the War it would need to destroy the carriers early forces necessary to achieve through. Capability to provide analytical and information collection personnel in both specialist units from. Beachhead and on the West Coast less restrictive environment and deliver the information via one of the importance of military intelligence methods submission... 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