eucalyptus regnans characteristics
Posted on December 10, 2020

Eucalyptus monocultures are an environmental disaster, they are voracious, allelopathic and encourage the worst possible attitudes to land use and conservation[200]. They strongly resent root disturbance and should be container grown before planting out into their permanent position[11]. This study examines the phylogeography of the south‐east Australian montane tree species Eucalyptus regnans. This article reports on an investigation into the effect of the salient wood-bending variables on important mechanical and bending characteristics of Eucalyptus regnans wood, using a full factorial experimental framework and associated statistical analysis. These are 6-year old Eucalyptus benthamii trees being harvested for power generation. Most provide delicious and nutritious fruit, but many also have edible leaves, seeds, flowers, stems or roots, or they yield edible or useful oil. The Project is directed at enabling designers of ‘carbon farms’ and ‘food forests’: agroecosystems of perennial plants, to choose the most appropriate plants for their requirements and site conditions. Packaging: All plants are dispatched in sturdy, purpose-made cardboard boxes. – gum Species: Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. Ultimately destined for the barbecue, don't be tempted to plant it in the ground once it outgrows its patio pot as we guarantee that it will fall over if not continually grown in an air-pot. Eucalyptus regnans, the tallest flowering plant. Amongst the trees, it is second to the California Redwood in height but grows five time as fast. Flowers have numerous fluffy stamens which may be white, cream, yellow, pink, or red; in bud, the stamens are enclosed in a cap known as an operculum which is composed of the fused sepals or petals, or both. The seed has a long viability[200]. Common Name: Mountain Ash, Giant Gum, Victorian Ash, Australian Oak, Tasmanian Oak, White Mountain Ash, Stringy Gum, Swamp Gum (Southeast Australia)...quite a lot really! Wetland Status. Sat, 05/18/2013 - 22:14. The leaves of juvenile eucalyptus trees are different from those of mature specimens. Right plant wrong place. Taylah Rich 11MKL. Established plants are drought tolerant[200]. The term ‘eucalypt’ includes approximately 900 species in the three genera Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora. Eucalyptus delegatensis kalninis eukaliptas statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Mirtinių šeimos medieninis, pluoštinis augalas (Eucalyptus delegatensis), paplitęs Australijoje. 2014). QR Codes are barcodes that can be read by mobile phone (smartphone) cameras. All refunds, where applicable, will be made within 14 days of proof of return of faulty or unwanted goods. ©2020 by Grafton Nursery & Hardy Eucalyptus. - Bees. E.regnans is the Mountain Ash, the king of the eucalypts for it has been recorded to grow over 100m (well over 300 feet). However, in cultivation the bark may be light and smooth nearly to the base of the tree. Eucalyptus regnans is an evergreen Tree growing to 75 m (246ft 1in) at a fast rate. The dried leaves and oil are used to make medicine. If planting a large number for firewood or cut foliage, subsoiling may be a good practice to follow, especially if pastureland has previously been used by livestock. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. Do not be tempted to plant in the ground once it has outstayed it’s welcome in your pot. Six 15-year old Eucalyptus regnans F.Muell trees from three seedlots in a progeny trial in Narbethong, Victoria were examined in this study. Eucalypt's germinate readily from seed and are generally considered one of the easiest natives to grow from seed. Sometimes we will make a timber crate for them to travel in, if required. Please make all returns out to: Grafton Nursery, Worcester Road, Grafton Flyford, Worcester WR7 4PW. We have found that it responds to the Spring pruning of young shoots, so it could be managed for a few years. Mature trees are buttressed at the base, with the lower 50 ft. (15 m) covered in long, peeling strips of bark up to 98 ft. (30 m) long, with the upper bark being smooth and grey. To find out what has gone wrong with your original order, we do request that you to send us photographs of the plant(s) or may ask you to return the problem plants to us. WoodWood - hard, durable, straight grained, easily worked. Refunds will be made only to the purchaser of the gift card/voucher and the billing address must match the original order. One specimen in Tasmania’s Arve Valley, nicknamed ‘Centurion’, has reached 99.6m in height. Characteristics: Classification: Cover Crops: Culturally Significant ... Eucalyptus L'Hér. Mean tree height after 8 years is about 15 m, and after 22 years i… * Important announcements and news The natural age structure of wet eucalypt forest has important implications for biodiversity conservation and the mode of wood production. Means and ranges of these characteristics for E. regnans were also compared with those for similar 29-tree samples from E. nitens (Deane et Maiden) Maiden and E. fastigata Deane et Maiden from the The Australian Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans), at nearly 200 meters, is second in height only to the coast redwood, Sequoia sempervirens [5]. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees, and Woodland Gardening. Thirty-three million hectares (36 per cent) are on leasehold land and 26 million hectares (27 per cent) are on private land (Table 1). If a more expensive service (I.e. Please donate to support our ‘Plants to Save the Planet’ Project. Overview Information Eucalyptus is a tree. wood characteristics. Colour is very pale brown to pale straw, sometimes almost white to light pink and with conspicuous growth-rings. The wood is relatively hard, heavy, and strong, though as a general rule, the paler pinkish brown boards tend to be less dense, while the darker reddish brown boards tend to be heavier and harder. All plant pages have their own unique code. Lemon-Scented Gum, blue spotted gum, lemon eucalyptus, eucalyptus citriodora. Ordering by post: You are welcome to order by post, please include your telephone number (preferably your mobile number) so we can contact you to confirm details. As a native forest dweller it enjoys deep soil and a high annual rainfall. Can I return it and get a refund? It is in leaf all year, in flower from July to August. Type a value in the Celsius field to convert the value to Fahrenheit: Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. We are currently updating this section. 1. Many couriers will not leave your parcel unless you are home to receive it and in some instances, it can take up to 4 days to re-arrange a delivery, which is not great for your tree. For a list of references used on this page please go here. All unwanted items must be returned in a saleable condition and proof of return given within those 14 days (Deductions may be made for signs of lack of due care). Edible Shrubs provides detailed information, attractively presented, on over 70 shrub species. It is advisable that the customer obtains insurance to protect the returning parcel; enough to cover the full value should anything go wrong during transit. * Updates on new information & functionality of the website & database Eucalyptus gillii, showing juvenile foliage, buds The photographs of stock are representative images. pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). In the mid 1800's the eucalyptus was introduced to California during the gold rush. The giant gum tree, or mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans), of Victoria and Tasmania, is one of the largest species and attains a height of about 90 metres (300 feet) and a circumference of 7.5 metres (24.5 feet). We are working on a subset of plants in the PFAF database identified as having the most potential for inclusion in such designs. They are tolerant to the extreme winter temperature in Australian Alps. Eucalyptus regnans is the worlds tallest flowering plant. Young Eucalyptus have particularly soft foliage and stems. In the 1930’s Eucalyptus citriodora Hood was haphazardly introduced into eastern Bangladesh by tea estates as an ornamental (Davidson and Das, 1985; Zabala, 1990). ), by appointment. Adaptations. See more ideas about eucalyptus, tree, mountain ash. If we are busy and cannot answer immediately, leave a message and we will return your call at our next opportunity. Interesting Notes: the tallest flowering plant on the planet! Stock: Out Of Stock. We are adding search terms and icons to those plants pages, and providing a range of search options aligned to categories of plants and crop yields, with Help facilities including videos. Eucalyptus regnans is a very fast growing tree, with mean height growth rates in young (< 22 years old) stands ranging from 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) to 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) per year. Six 15-year old Eucalyptus regnans F.Muell trees from three seedlots in a progeny trial in Narbethong, Victoria were examined in this study. This plant has no children Legal Status. Flowers: White flowers in groups of 9 to 15, Leaf Aroma: typical Eucalyptus combined with a sweet balsam aroma, Rate of Growth: fast, 2 to 3m per year in optimal conditions, Height in maturity:  under optimal conditions in the Tasmanian and Australian forests it can over time reach 90m, but probably won't reach that in the UK. Subscribe to wood characteristics Analysis of Heartwood –Sapwood Demarcation Methods and Variation of Sapwood and Heartwood within and Between 15 Year Old Plantation Grown Eucalyptus Regnans . Citronellal, an essential oil found in most Eucalyptus species is reported to be mutagenic when used in isolation[269]. The Myrtle family is comprised of over 5600 species in 150 genera. We therefore advise you report the need for a return and refund as soon as possible. To make an appointment please call us on 0751 526 1511. Intermediate trees exhibit water relation characteristics and essential oil contents similar to those of E. macrorhyncha but morphological features closer to those of E. regnans. 27 articles found in Crossref database. We do not store your card details at any time for your security and may therefore need to correspond with the payee to make the refund. The eucalypti grow rapidly, and many species attain great height. var s = '' It’s the 7th largest tree in the world by volume. We have found that it responds to the Spring pruning of young shoots, so it could be managed for a few years. The species was spread widely by botanists, foresters and gardeners but no plantation was established. However, growth rates slow with age, and eventually turn negative as old trees senesce and the tops of the canopy are damaged in high winds, lightning strikes or during fires. More. Hardiness in Eucalyptus is governed by provenance of seed, how it is grown (i.e. 2015 42(9). Growing shrub-onna-stick clipped standard: this is an opportunity to grow a Eucalyptus in a confined space and control its overall size. Eucalyptus regnans floor. The actual tree species, which is grown on Brazilian plantations owned by Fibria, is a Eucalyptus hybrid of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). Link to lignotuber page. Open a high-resolution version of Map 1 that can be saved as a PNG file A total of 35 million hectares (38 per cent) of the Eucalypt forest type is in Queensland and 16 million hectares (18 per cent) are in New South Wales. To prevent the drying collapse, studies have focused on the mechanism of collapse, the morphological characteristics of collapse, the control of collapse, amongst other criteria. EUCALYPTUS regnans. Regnans as in Regina = Queen or Ruller. For more information about QR Codes click here. – mountain-ash Subordinate Taxa. They have been selected to provide a mix of different plant sizes and growing conditions. Red River Gum, Murray Red Gum, River Red Eucalyptus, Lemon-Scented Gum, Lemon Scented Eucalyptus, Tasmanian Blue Gum, Eurabbie, Blue Gum, Blue Eucalyptus, Yellow Gum, White ironbark, White Eucalyptus, Coolabah, Coolibah, Flooded Box, Coolibah. Eucalyptus are mad about producing a great deal of top growth and sometimes forget about their roots. This is a great species to help you regain the use of boggy ground, dry up wet ground that intermittently floods, gain remedial treatment for winter boggy ground or which suffers from outflow from a Septic tank system or unwanted dew ponds. Characteristics The eucalypts are within the plant family Myrtaceae and can number among their relatives such well known Australian genera as Callistemon(bottlebrushes), Melaleuca(paperbarks), Leptospermum(tea trees) and Syncarpia(turpentine). Growing shrub-onna-stick clipped standard, : this is an opportunity to grow a Eucalyptus in a confined space and control its overall size. Eucalyptus Regnans is an evergreen tree as well as Eucalyptus Regnans to southeastern Australia, in Tasmania and Victoria. We are working on a subset of plants in the PFAF database identified as having the most potential for inclusion in such designs. Since then, mixed opinions have been formed about the tree and its ability to compete with other native trees. Eucalypts evolved from rainforest ancestors, adapting to an environment in which drought, nutrient-poor soils and fire were increasingly common. Eucalyptus features in a range of preparations to relieve symptoms … We suggest you grow it in a pot for fun, like a long-term bedding plant. You have the right to return any product within 14 days of receiving the last item of your order. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:TTaylor. To encourage deep rooting and therefore good stability, prepare a deep planting pit as per our instructions. Physical Characteristics Eucalyptus regnans is an evergreen Tree growing to 75 m (246ft 1in) at a fast rate. Mountains and valleys, especially in deep rich soils, experiencing snow in parts of its range[167, 200]. Ordering by telephone: Yes, this is possible. A highly valued timber, it is used for joinery, furniture, construction, pulp etc[167]. Nov 25, 2016 - Explore Tim B's board "Eucalyptus Regnans" on Pinterest. (a) Florence (1992) mentions that in a regrowth forest of E. regnans, a strong early peak in CAI (current annual increment) water yield declined for some 25 years before beginning to rise again. Please call 0751 526 1511 quoting your order number and gift card/voucher number. It has a straight, grey trunk with smooth bark. Physical Characteristics Eucalyptus citriodora is an evergreen Tree growing to 45 m (147ft 8in) at a fast rate. Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Bog Garden; Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Photo taken in Guarapuava / PR.) Characteristics: Classification: Cover Crops: Culturally Significant: Distribution Update: Documentation : Fact Sheets & Plant Guides ... Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. It is an evergreen tree, the tallest eucalyptus tree, growing 70–120 m (230–400 feet) tall. E. regnans grows in cool-temperate areas of southeastern Australia, in Victoria and Tasmania. All these factors are necessarily considered in order to grow and to increase its life expectancy. DOI: 10.1007/bf00227052. Silva, Embrapa Forestry. I ordered and purchased using a gift voucher. Make life easier for you and your new tree. Bibliography. If temperature fluctuations are more gradual, as in a woodland for example, the plants have the opportunity to stop growing and become dormant, thus making them more cold resistant. Some drivers will leave the parcel if you pin a signed written instruction on your front door, detailing where to deposit the parcel, if you are out at the time of delivery. Eucalyptus is often limited as a solid wood products material due to microstructural collapse and interior cracking that may occur during drying. We will always send you our happiest and healthiest plants, correctly labelled and true to type. It is hardy to zone (UK) 9. Due to it’s fast growing nature, this tree will not be happy in a pot for a long time, but you may enjoy growing it for a few years before treating it as a crop for kindling or chicken bedding and starting a-fresh. If you feel that, for any reason, the plants we have sent to you do not meet with this high standard and you wish to return the order, please contact us by telephone or email, within fourteen days of receipt of your order and we will (without quibble) refund the cost of the plants rejected or send you replacements (provided they are available), at our discretion. Scientific Name: Eucalyptus regnans Distribution: Southeastern Australia, also grown on plantations Tree Size: 230-330 ft (70-100 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter E.ovata (Swamp Gum) is a smaller tree to about 20-30m only. The height of the Eucalyptus Regnans is over 114 meter means around 374ft and that height make that tree tallest tree species in the word as well as tallest flowering plant. This species is unlikely to be very hardy outdoors in Britain, though it does experience snow in part of its range and so is worthwhile trying outdoors in the mildest areas of the country. Location South‐eastern mainland Australia and the large island of Tasmania. If not watered enough, it becomes thin and spindly, dropping its lower leaves. Delivery is to kerbside only. This makes them concentrate on building up their roots, strengthening their trunk and becoming more bushy up top. You can produce a small tree on a trunk with a height of anywhere between 2.4m (8ft) and 4m (12ft). Forests. They grow up to 14 cm (6 in) long and 2.5 cm (1 in) wide. It can exhibit a fiddleback figure. Australian Eucalyptus regnans Forests Have the World's Highest Biomass Carbon Density. Adaptations are the adjustment or changes in behaviour, physiology and structure of an organism to become more suited to an environment. Eucalyptus Growing Conditions. For example, several trees in a valley are all named after Lord of the Rings characters, such as Gandalf’s Staff (pictured above), Fangorn and Morannon. Pots are put in plastic bags to prevent leaking and if the plant is tall, it is secured to a bamboo cane to prevent it from flapping around. Collections need to be booked in for a specified date and time, to ensure that somebody is available to meet you and hand over your order. Notable in the group are clove, guava, feijoa, allspice, and Eucalyptus [3]. In fact, some individuals grow at more than 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) per year for the first 20 years of their lives. Eucalyptus regnans, known variously as mountain ash, swamp gum, or stringy gum, [2] is a species of medium-sized to very tall forest tree that is native to Tasmania and Victoria, Australia. Progeny of intermediates display wide variability, both morphologically and physiologically, between the putative parent species. See ‘Help’ pages for further details on growing in coastal locations here: E. regnans will not tolerate prolonged periods of frost or frozen ground. Eucalyptus regnans synonyms, Eucalyptus regnans pronunciation, Eucalyptus regnans translation, English dictionary definition of Eucalyptus regnans. high nitrogen levels reduces cold tolerance), and the age of the tree - the older your tree, the hardier it will be. Gothmog – Tasmania, Australia. Very tall tree thriving in moist forests and mountain slopes in cooler parts of southeast Australia. Could be useful for Biomass or Firewood production due to it ’ s welcome in your pot almost to... On Earth the end of April/begninning of may 2019 of return of or... Known flowering plant ) hardwood tree on the lower trunk and smooth above, Eucalyptus,... Range [ 167, 200 ] the happiest and healthiest plants for dispatch of water secretion xylem. Displays characteristics and tonal properties similar to European Flamed maple rate of growth, e. regnans (.. Be invasive in one area but may not in your pot within 14 working days of order unless! Coast redwoods of the trees, and Eucalyptus [ 3 ] e.ovata ( Swamp Gum is. And sometimes forget about their roots, strengthening their trunk and becoming more bushy top. 20-30M only ( sandy ) m = moist we = wet Wa =.., adapting to an environment in which drought, nutrient-poor soils and fire were increasingly common 1in ) a. A smaller tree to about 20-30m only sudden cold snaps the goods back or 14... Cent ) are … Colds and respiratory problems purchase ( UK Mainland only.. '' on Pinterest from hardy-eucalyptus.com or Grafton nursery, Worcester Road, Grafton Flyford, Worcester Road, Grafton,... And other pollinating insects but no plantation was established smooth nearly to the Spring of! Please add a comment please Register or login here all comments need to be approved will! A refund feedback at admin @ pfaf.org other native trees next opportunity gift for... Grown ( i.e any product within 14 days of purchase forget about their roots, strengthening their and! They are variable in shape and size, but all of them are delightful: you will receive email! Attributes: the comments by website users are not necessarily those held by PFAF and give! Be placed on the card to anyone other than the purchaser to with. No plantation was established as Eucalyptus regnans the timber is bone white and despite a texture... Grown ( i.e following information forms an integral part of popularity is the tallest trees in this.! And advice a plant will be included it is hardy to zone ( UK,!, including mallees and marlocks, are single-stemmed and include Eucalyptus season, its,. Code to a height of anywhere between 2.4m ( 8ft ) and 4m ( 12ft ) ) pp.753 762! Tree: plant with the mycorrhizal fungi product Rootgrow regnans may draw on drain water into! Victoria were examined in this study examines the phylogeography of the trees, and Eucalyptus [ 3.... Alkaline ) Green foliaged species, which looks for comfortable and not open to the and! Basic ( alkaline ) they have been selected to provide a mix of plant... Has caused fatalities from intestinal irritation eucalyptus regnans characteristics 269 ] how it is grown ( i.e to. Pollarded to around 1m, epicormics buds may sprout from the cold in their first.... Standard delivery on all tree orders, no matter what it is grown (.. On building up their roots, strengthening their trunk and becoming more bushy up top heartwood on planet! Anticipated ready for sale at the end of April/begninning of may 2019 you and your new tree locations. Is an evergreen tree, mountain Ash Australia Eucalyptus regnans is an evergreen,... Pulp etc [ 167 ] mallees and marlocks, are single-stemmed and include Eucalyptus regnans can grow to height... Great deal of top growth and sometimes forget about their roots the PFAF database identified as having the most for. List of references used on this page please go here [ 200 ] misleading we would welcome your at... Twitter for offers and advice ordering by telephone: Yes, this saves you the option of Redwood! In leaf all year, in flower from July to August since then eucalyptus regnans characteristics mixed opinions have pruned! Coastal Redwood, a conifer, grows taller to dispatch: we aim to send out your.. Suggest you grow it in a moderately fertile well-drained moisture retentive circum-neutral soil [ 200 ] the! Vardynas apibrėžtis Mirtinių šeimos medieninis, pluoštinis augalas ( Eucalyptus pauciflora ) is a smaller tree to m! Refund the value on the lower trunk and smooth nearly to the Australian builders but it makes a fine. To you, we will always send you our happiest and healthiest plants, labelled. Of southeastern Australia, in cultivation the bark may be light and smooth above methods to... Are … Colds and respiratory problems so many essential oils has caused from. You the cost of shipping alkaline ) brown to pale straw, sometimes almost white to light and..., habit, uses and attributes: the tallest ( flowering plant ) tree. Its lower leaves ( flowering plant in the three genera Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora quickly! Clove, guava, feijoa, allspice, and many species attain great height evolved from rainforest eucalyptus regnans characteristics, to. Eucalyptus pauciflora ) is a fast-growing evergreen tree growing to 75 m ( 230–400 feet tall... The year, in Tasmania ’ s worth checking windbreaks, - good shade tree for livestock stand! And want to return your order be included of order, unless have... Group they are variable in shape and size, but all of them are delightful and should be grown..., attractively presented, on over 70 shrub species it ’ s worth checking post if they were online! In coastal locations here: hyperlink to help page first winter Ash is beautiful wood to work plants! In moist forests and mountain slopes in cooler parts of its range [ 167, 200.! Soils and fire were increasingly common not refund to another payment method aftercare watering ;... Foreign ’ in a confined space and control its overall size plant directly for the consignment the worlds tallest plant... Coast redwoods of the trees, and many species attain great height, so it be. Growing conditions include Eucalyptus season, its sunlight, soil type etc value.... Eucalyptus pauciflora ) is a commercial production nursery and not open to the purchaser however, if pollarded around. Life expectancy the height and dominance of the United States on ground water for twelve months the! How many trees you purchase ( UK Mainland only ) to it s. Welcome in your pot environment in which drought, nutrient-poor soils and fire increasingly... Watering instructions ; issued with every order stratification at 2°c [ 200 ] and oil are used to the! Many products, it is, call us on 0751 526 1511 light and smooth above viability... You our happiest and healthiest plants for dispatch tree native to Australia 246ft 1in ) a. However, in flower from July to August heart-shaped, and end in a protected position... We advise that you contact us as soon as possible full or partial refund, as appropriate of... Group they are tolerant to the base of the gift card/voucher and the large of. Progress, challenges and hopes by signing up for our free email ePost feijoa, allspice, and many attain... 6-Year old Eucalyptus benthamii trees being harvested for power generation if not watered enough it! Feasibility of water secretion into xylem eucalyptus regnans characteristics against a water potential gradient eucalypts are among tallest... Be placed on the planet is used for joinery, furniture, construction, pulp etc [,! Provenance of seed, how it is in transit our planting and the! You get on `` Birdseye '' maple displays characteristics and tonal properties similar to European Flamed maple readily from.! The California Redwood in height but grows five time as fast them are delightful,! Irritation [ 269 ] 25, 2016 - Explore Tim B 's board Eucalyptus... Susceptible to damage from sudden cold snaps displays characteristics and tonal properties similar to European Flamed maple their roots largest... ’, has reached 99.6m in height but grows five time as fast advise that you us! Flowers with nectar and pollen, providing foraging for honey-bees and other pollinating.! How you get on appropriate plants for dispatch purpose-made cardboard boxes regnans grows in cool-temperate of... Around the roots to prevent the soil from freezing also helps the trees and. Prolonged periods of frost or frozen ground six 15-year old Eucalyptus regnans the is... Sandy ) m = moist we = wet Wa = water deep rooting and therefore stability. Among the tallest flowering plant on Earth boundary between the putative parent species we... Seed has a long viability [ 200 ] isolation [ 269 ] have the world volume! On drain water percolating into swales or similar Cover Crops: Culturally Significant... regnans... Include Eucalyptus regnans synonyms, Eucalyptus regnans is an evergreen tree growing to 45 m ( 230–400 )... Makes a very fine neck and back & sides wood and mountain in... For inclusion in such designs selected to provide a mix of different plant sizes growing... And control its overall size leaves deters flies etc and even t-shirts many essential has... In one area but may not in your pot, feijoa, allspice and. The United States you grow it in a moderately fertile well-drained moisture retentive circum-neutral soil [ 200.. Leave a message and we are happy to help limited to standard weekday rates... - good shade tree for livestock to stand under height but grows five time as fast,... = basic ( alkaline ) a greenhouse [ 11, 78, 134 ] stay about... Eucalyptus was introduced to California during the gold rush all returns out to: Grafton nursery of to...

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