archetypal criticism by northrop frye
Posted on December 10, 2020

How do contemporary critics view Frye’s archetypal criticism? There are two basic categories in Frye’s framework, i.e., comedic and tragic. He notes that Singer’s Unholy Bible: A Psychological Interpretation of William Blake (1970), though oversimplified in its psychobiographical approach and its treatment of characters as psychological projections of the author, does make original use in a literary context of such Jungian techniques of dream interpretation as “amplification” and of such fantasy-evoking procedures as “active imagination.”. Fort Worth: HBJ, 1993. • Cities, temples, or precious stones represent the comedic mineral realm. In addition, many powerfully heuristic Jungian concepts, such as “synchronicity,” have yet to be tested in literary contexts. “Frye proposed that the totality of literary woks constitute a “self-contained literary universe” “. • -- "Carl Gustav Jung." Frye, Northrop. 223 - 225 Northrop Frye rose to international prominence with the publication ofAnatomy of Criticism, in 1957 and it firmly established him as one of the most brilliant, original and influential of modern critics. 1: 67), of the “archetypes,” which he described as patterns of psychic energy originating in the collective unconscious and finding their “most common and most normal” manifestation in dreams (8:287). This page has been accessed 23,131 times. R. F. C. Hull, 2 vois., 1973-75). Frye admits that his schema in “The Archetypes of Literature” is simplistic, but makes room for exceptions by noting that there are neutral archetypes. 4. Frye died in 1991. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Archetypal criticism, then, construed as that derived from Jung’s theory and practice of archetypal (analytical) psychology, is a fledgling and much misconstrued field of inquiry with significant but still unrealized potential for the study of literature and of aesthetics in general. What are the examples of archetypes in literature? Home › Archetypal Criticism › Archetypal Criticism, By Nasrullah Mambrol on October 22, 2020 • ( 0 ). The genre of drama originated from medieval religion in a way so strikingly similar to the way it emerged from Greek religion centuries before. Serpent (snake, worm): symbol of energy and pure force (libido); evil, corruption, sensuality, destruction. Shakespeare also borrowed heavily from a speech by Medea in Ovid's Metamorphoses in writing Prospero's renunciative speech; nevertheless, the unique combination of these elements in the character of Prospero created a new interpretation of the sage magician as that of a carefully plotting hero, quite distinct from the wizard-as-advisor archetype of Merlin or Gandalf. Archetypal criticism moved into the sphere of literary analysis following Maud Bodkin's groundbreaking Archetypal Patterns in Poetry (1934). . At mid-century, Canadian critic Northrop Frye (1912-91) introduced new distinctions in literary criticism between myth and archetype. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. Example: Snowball from George Orwell's "Animal Farm". LITERATURE AT ALBERTS: NORTHROP FRYE: THE ARCHETYPES OF LITERATURE. William Shakespeare is known for creating many archetypal characters that hold great social importance in his native land, such as The first systematic application of Jung’s ideas to literature was made in 1934 by Maud Bodkin in Archetypal Patterns in Poetry: “An attempt is here made to bring psychological analysis and reflection to bear upon the imaginative experience communicated by great poetry, and to examine those forms or patterns in which the universal forces of our nature there find objectification” (vii). Thus, with the archetypal theorists multiplying across disciplines on the one hand and the clinically practicing followers serving as (generally inadequate) critics on the other, archetypal literary theory and criticism flourished in two independent streams in the 1960s and 1970s. It was not until the work of the Canadian literary critic Northrop Frye that archetypal criticism was theorized in purely literary terms. Despite his deliberately selective focus on critical works written in English on literary texts that are, for the most part, also written in English, van Meurs, with the early assistance of John Kidd, has collected 902 entries, of which he identifies slightly over 80 as valid and valuable literary criticism. Northrop Frye Collection, Victoria University Library: http://library.vicu.utoronto.ca/special/fryeintro.htm This article, then, treats the only form of literary theory and criticism consistent with and derived directly from the psychological principles advanced by Jung. Ironically, as in the feminist revisioning of explicitly male-biased Jungian theory, the rise in the 1980s of Reader-response theory and criticism and the impetus for canon revision have begun to contribute to a revaluation of Jung as a source of literary study. Northrop Frye’s Anatomy of Criticism (1957) introduced the archetypal approach called Myth Criticism, combining the typological interpretation of the Bible and the conception of imagination prevalent in the writings of William Blake. Frye consciously omits all specific and practical criticism, instead offering classically inspired theories of modes, symbols, myths and genres, in what he termed "an … Characters : References NORTHROP FRYE'S WIDE-RANGING ANALYSIS of William Blake's art in Fearful Symmetry and in other criticism has long been appropriated by Blake scholars in their support of the archetypal tradition, with its emphasis on the meaning and sources of symbolism in the works of Blake. Garden: paradise, innocence, unspoiled beauty. plot forms, or organizing structural principles), correspondent to the four seasons in the cycle of the natural world, are incorporated in the four major genres of comedy (spring), romance (summer), tragedy (autumn), and satire (winter). Summer - life; genre/romance. Archetypal theory and criticism, although often used synonymously with Myth theory and crticism, has a distinct history and process. Hillman invokes Henri Corbin (1903-78), French scholar, philosopher, and mystic known for his work on Islam, as the “second father” of archetypal psychology. Red: blood, sacrifice, passion; disorder. "Northrop Frye." Vincent B. Leitch. How archetypes came to be was also of no concern to Frye; rather, the function and effect of archetypes is his interest. Feminist archetypal theory, proceeding inductively, restored Jung’s original emphasis on the fluid, dynamic nature of the archetype, drawing on earlier feminist theory as well as the work of Jungian Erich Neumann to reject absolutist, ahistorical, essentialist, and transcendentalist misinterpretations. • The comedic human world is representative of wish-fulfillment and being community centered. These archetypalists, focusing on the imaginal’and making central the concept that in English they call “soul,” assert their kinship with Semiotics and Structuralism but maintain an insistent focus on psychoid phenomena, which they characterize as meaningful. Léon S. Roudiez, 1986); Estella Lauter and Carol Schreier Rupprecht, Feminist Archetypal Theory: Interdisciplinary Re-Visions of Jungian Thought (1985); Erich Neumann, Art and the Creative Unconscious: Four Essays (trans. Jung and the Humanities: Toward a Hermeneutics of Culture. 2. Though he is dismissive of Frazer, Frye uses the seasons in his archetypal schema. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays is a book by Canadian literary critic and theorist Northrop Frye that attempts to formulate an overall view of the scope, theory, principles, and techniques of literary criticism derived exclusively from literature. • Abrams, M. H. "Archetypal Criticism." The major work of Frye’s to deal with archetypes is Anatomy of Criticism but his essay The Archetypes of Literature is a precursor to the book. Thus criticism evolving from his work is more accurately named “archetypal” and is quite distinct from “myth” criticism. 6. (If winter has come, can spring be far behind?) Dancing, riding, or flying: symbols of sexual pleasure. Frye outlines five different spheres in his schema: human, animal, vegetation, mineral, and water. • Water - Water is a symbol of life, cleansing, and rebirth. Carl Jung’s Contribution to Psychoanalytic Theory. Archetypal Criticism – Northrop Frye Summary. The outcast - The outcast is just that. 7 - the most potent of all symbolic numbers signifying the union of three and four, the completion of a cycle, perfect order, perfect number; religious symbol. Frye proposed that the totality of literary works constitute a “self-contained literary universe” which has been created over the ages by the human imagination so as to assimilate the alien and indifferent world of nature into archetypal forms that serve to satisfy enduring human desires and needs. Yellow: enlightenment, wisdom. Buy Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays by Frye, Northrop online on Amazon.ae at best prices. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! For instance, in The Tempest, Shakespeare borrowed from a manuscript by William Strachey that detailed an actual shipwreck of the Virginia-bound 17th-century English sailing vessel Sea Venture in 1609 on the islands of Bermuda. He or she has been cast out of society or has left it on a voluntary basis. Confirmation of this theory was Jung’s reading of Faust: part 1 was “psychological”; part 2, “visionary.”. James Baird, “Jungian Psychology in Criticism: Theoretical Problems,” Literary Criticism and Psychology (ed. It is easiest to understand them with the help of examples. As for Jung, Frye was uninterested about the collective unconscious on the grounds of feeling it was unnecessary: since the unconscious is unknowable it cannot be studied. Archetypal criticism was at it most popular in the 1940s and 1950s largely due to the work of condition literary critic Northrop Frye. Hamlet, the self-doubting hero and the initiation archetype with the three stages of separation, transformation, and return; For Frye, the death-rebirth myth that Frazer sees manifest in agriculture and the harvest is not ritualistic since it is involuntary, and therefore, must be done. On a general level, Jung’s and Frye’s theorizings about archetypes, however labeled, overlap, and boundaries are elusive, but in the disciplines of literature the two schools have largely ignored each other’s work. Archetypal theory then took shape principally in the multidisciplinary journal refounded by Hillman in 1970 in Zurich, Spring: An Annual of Archetypal Psychology and Jungian Thought. Jung most frequently used “myth” (or “mythologem”) for the narrative expression, “on the ethnological level” (Collected 9, pt. Example: Frodo's task to keep the ring safe in J. R. R. Tolkein's "The Lord of the Rings" trilogy. Black: darkness, chaos, mystery, the unknown, death, wisdom, evil, melancholy. And despite frequently perceptive readings, the work is marred by the characteristic limitless expansionism and psychological utilitarianism of her interpretive scheme. Literaature Of the different approaches of literary criticism, Northrop Frye has established the validity of the archetypal approach and its relevance in the elucidation of a text. What types of archetypal themes, images and characters are traced in literature by them? For instance Beckett’s Waiting For Godot is considered a tragicomedy, a play with elements of tragedy and satire, with the implication that interpreting textual elements in the play becomes difficult as the two opposing seasons and conventions that Frye associated with genres are pitted against each other. But Jos van Meurs’s critically annotated 1988 bibliography, Jungian Literary Criticism, 1920-1980, effectively challenges this claim. In literary criticism the term archetype denotes recurrent narratives designs, patterns of action, character-types, themes, and images which are identifiable in a wide variety of works of literature, as well as in myths, dreams, and even social rituals. • Animals in the comedic genres are docile and pastoral (e.g. Bibliography Bettina Knapp’s 1984 effort at an authoritative demonstration of archetypal literary criticism exemplified this pattern. 4 Seasons represent variations of the 'Monomyth': Spring (Comedy) Summer (Romance) Autumn (Tragedy) Winter (Irony & Satire) The archetypes are related by the theme of 1: 4), but he distinguishes his concept and use of the term from that of philosophical idealism as being more empirical and less metaphysical, though most of his “empirical” data were dreams. Spring - rebirth; genre/comedy. And new theories increasingly give credence to the requirement, historically asserted by Jungian readers, that each text elicit a personal, affective, and not “merely intellectual” response. [citation needed] Archetypal criticism peaked in popularity in the 1940s and 1950s, largely due to the work of Canadian literary critic Northrop Frye (1912-1991). (Search for Holy Grail, Search for Sita, Nal-Damaanti, Savitri for Satyakam’s life, Shakuntala in Kalidas, Don Quixote, Jude, …) Further, the text offered confirmation (and poetic representation) of the only direct contribution Jung made to literary theory: a distinction between “psychological” and “visionary” texts (Collected 15:89-90). Many fell prey to Jung’s idiosyncrasies as a reader, ranging widely and naively over genres, periods, and languages in search of the universal archetypes, while sweeping aside cultureand text-specific problems, ignoring their own role in the act of reading and basing critical evaluation solely on a text’s contribution to the advancement of the reader’s individuation process, a kind of literature-astherapy standard. The scapegoat - The scapegoat figure is the one who gets blamed for everything, regardless of whether he or she is actually at fault. (Hamlet, Macbeth, Tom Jones, Moll, … ) Northrop Frye, Simulation, and the Creation of a "Human World": http://www.transparencynow.com/introfry2.htm. I n what way Archetypal criticism discovers basic cultural pattern? Phallic symbols (towers, mountain peaks, snakes, knives, swords, etc.) A Glossary of Literary Terms. According to this argument the dilemma Frye’s archetypal criticism faces with more contemporary literature, and that of post-modernism in general, is that genres and categories are no longer distinctly separate and that the very concept of genres has become blurred, thus problematizing Frye’s schema. Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. male symbols. • Lastly, the water realm is represented by rivers in the comedic. 3 - 15 Northrop Frye. The Norton Anthology: Theory and Criticism. ; or in the case of Gandalf, the Norse figure Odin. Both of these are likely derived from priesthood authority archetypes, such as Celtic Druids, or perhaps Biblical figures like Abraham, Moses, etc. 1442 - 1445 Among the other archetypal themes, images and characters frequently traced in literature were the journey underground, the heavenly ascent, the search, the Paradise/Hades dichotomy, the Promethean rebel-hero, the scapegoat, the earth goddess, and the fatal woman. In this literary universe, four radical mythoi (i.e. In Re-Visioning Psychology, the published text of his 1972 Yale Terry Lectures (the same lecture series Jung gave in 1937), Hillman locates the archetypal neither “in the physiology of the brain, the structure of language, the organization of society, nor the analysis of behavior, but in the processes of imagination” (xi). “In literary criticism the term archetype denotes recurrent narratives designs, patterns of action, character-types, themes, and images which are identifiable in a wide variety of works of literature.” Elucidate with N.Frye’s views in his essay Archetype of Literature. Northrop Frye, Bedford/St. Archetypal criticism, then, construed as that derived from Jung’s theory and practice of archetypal (analytical) psychology, is a fledgling and much misconstrued field of inquiry with significant but still unrealized potential for the study of literature and of aesthetics in general. Hillman also discovers archetypal precursors in Neoplatonism, Heraclitus, Plotinus, Proclus, Marsilio Ficino, and Giambattista Vico. Anatomy of Criticism: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomy_of_Criticism, General Interest 5. Criticism in … 3 - 48 The shrew - This is that nagging, bothersome wife always battering her husband with verbal abuse. Given this background, it is not surprising to find in a 1976 essay entitled “Jungian Psychology in Criticism: Theoretical Problems” the statement that “no purely Jungian criticism of literature has yet appeared” (Baird 22). Another way of thinking about archetypes is to imagine that in some way it is possible to plot… In his remarkable and influential book Anatomy of Criticism (1957), N. Frye developed the archetypal approach into a radical and comprehensive revision of traditional grounds both in the theory of literature and the practice of literary criticism. 7. Categories: Archetypal Criticism, Literary Criticism, Literary Theory, Myth Criticism, Psychoanalysis, Tags: Achetypes, Alchemy of Discourse: An Archetypal Approach to Language, Anatomy of Criticism, Archetypal Criticism, Archetypal feminist criticism, Archetypal Patterns in Poetry, Archetypal Psychology, Archetypal Theory, Archetypal Theory and Criticism, Archetypal Theory Criticism, Claude Levi-Strauss, Ernst Cassirer, Evangelos Christou, Francis Fergusson, Frazer, Gilbert Durand, Henri Corbin, Hermes and His Children, Hillman, Imagining: A Phenomenological Study, J. G. Frazer, J. G. Frazer The Golden Bough, James Hillman, Jessie Weston, Joseph Campbell, Jung and the Humanities: Toward a Hermeneutics of Culture., Jung's Psychology of the Unconscious, Jungian Approach to Literature, Leslie Fiedler, Logos of the Soul, Maud Bodkin, Myth, Myth theory and crticism, New Polytheism, Northrop Frye, Philip Wheelwright, Psychoanalysis, Rafael Lopez-Pedraza, Richard Chase, Spring Journal, Spring: A Journal of Archetype and Culture, Spring: An Annual of Archetypal Psychology and Jungian Thought, The Golden Bough, The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Tree: denotes life of the cosmos; growth; proliferation; symbol of immortality; phallic symbol. Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. Must overcome a series of obstacles before reaching his or her goal community centered twenty books on Western literature culture... 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